It was during the ancient period that the first theoretical concepts on the study and systematization of the arts emerged. Ancient art refers to those developed by ancient civilizations. A civilization that was born with the invention of writing until the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 AD. Complete and well-diversified, it shows several ideological foundations. Following a chronological line, it is composed of the richness of Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Paleochristian, and Byzantine arts.
Egyptian art is the reference for discovering the world of ancient art. It is marked by advanced writing and religion. It was used to determine the way of life, social relations, and hierarchies of these people. It is the fundamental principle that guided all forms of this artistic representation.
Egyptian Architecture has the following characteristics: resistance and durability; a sense of eternity; a mysterious and impenetrable aspect. The art of painting in this period was standardized, as it followed religious criteria. As a result, creativity or imagination could not be expressed. The paintings must be anonymous, not inscribing the style of the artist, but that of the pharaoh.
The ancient Greeks distinguished themselves greatly in the world of art, for the beauty and perfection of their work. Through art, they sought to create scenes of Greek daily life, historical events, and, above all, religious and mythological themes. Greek architecture is divided into three styles. Corinth, which is characterized by excessive detail. The Doric, a style with few details, but which conveys a feeling of firmness.
Ancient Roman art followed the models, artistic and cultural elements of ancient Greece. The artists wanted to represent emperors, gods, and mythological figures of the Roman people.
Most Roman architectural representations were built in honor of the emperors. In architecture, the construction of portals, aqueducts, buildings, monuments, and temples is what sets them apart.
In Roman painting, their frescoes use the three-dimensional effect, with themes from everyday scenes, mythological and religious characters, and military conquests. But the most common artistic genres in the Roman painting were: landscapes, portraits, architecture, popular paintings, and triumphal paintings.
Early Christian and Byzantine Art
Christians also began to create simple and symbolic works that are primitive or early Christian art. Byzantine art is based on the reproduction of the Greco-Roman and Eastern cultures. The high point of Byzantine architecture was the construction of churches, spacious and monumental churches.
In terms of painting and sculpture, Byzantine painting did not develop much due to the iconoclastic movement. There are three distinct elements: icons, paintings on portable panels, of the Virgin Mary, Christ or saints, and miniatures which are paintings used in book illustrations.